Health Facts

Kidney stone fact

the lifetime risk:

10 to 15% in the developed world

20 to 25% in the middle East

Developed Asian Countries suffer changes from traditional to industrialized diet, due to lifestyle changes and globalization with the spread of Western culture. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. These lifestyle diseases are the most common cause of death in the world and a great burden for society.

One of the lifestyle disease “Obesity” has been considered a major contributor to the increased frequency of Urolithiasis(kidney stone)seen in recent years. Urolithiasis is one of the common problems in countries in tropical Asia. It accounts for 40% of renal problems in Pakistan, which is a country in the “stone belt.” The hot climate and dietary factors play important roles.
Evidence also suggests association of kidney stones with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Urolithiasis deaths per million persons in 2012

Reference: Chris55Data from World Health Organization Estimated Deaths 2012

The increased risk of dehydration in hot climates, coupled with a diet 50% lower in calcium and 250% higher in oxalates compared to Western diets, accounts for the higher net risk in the Middle East.[1]

The Middle East : Uric acid stones are more common than calcium-containing stones.[2]

The world : The number of deaths due to kidney stones is estimated at 19,000 per year being fairly consistent between 1990 and 2010.[3]

North America and Europe : The annual number of new cases per year of kidney stones is roughly 0.5%.

The United States : About 9% of the population has had a kidney stone.[4]  The frequency in the population of urolithiasis has increased from 3.2% to 5.2% from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s.[5]

【References】

[1] Lieske, JC; Segura, JW (2004). “Ch. 7: Evaluation and Medical Management of Kidney Stones”. In Potts, JM. Essential  Urology: A Guide to Clinical Practice (1st ed.). Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. pp. 117–52. ISBN 978-1-58829-109-7.
[2] Reilly, RF, Jr, Ch. 13: “Nephrolithiasis”. In Reilly Jr & Perazella 2005, pp. 192–207.
[3] Lozano, R; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle; Lim, Stephen; et al. (December 15, 2012). “Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010”. Lancet. 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
[4] Kidney Stones in Adults”. February 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
[5]  Moe, OW (2006). “Kidney stones: Pathophysiology and medical management” (PDF). The Lancet. 367 (9507): 333–44. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68071-9. PMID 16443041.

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【Acknowledgments】 Credit to all the authors of the articles in reference.
【Reference】[1] Akl C. Fahed, Abdul-Karim M. El-Hage-Sleiman,Theresa I. Farhat,and Georges M. Nemer,Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Volume 2012 (2012),Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region
[2] Vamsi Sodimbaku, Latha Pujari,UROLITHIASIS–AN UPDATED REVIEW OVER GENETICS, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND ITS CLINICAL MANAGEMENT
[3] John Michael DiBianco,T.W Jarrett,Patrick Mufarrij,Metabolic Syndrome and Nephrolithiasis Risk: Should the Medical Management of Nephrolithiasis Include the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome?Rev Urol. 2015; 17(3): 117–128.
[4] Alberto Trinchieri,Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update,Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2008 May-Aug; 5(2): 101–106.
[5] Jia‑Le Song Xin Zhao Qiang Wang,Protective effects of Quercus salicina on alloxan‑induced oxidative stress in HIT‑T15 pancreatic β cells
[6] Park SH, Kim HJ, Yoon JS, Lee HW, Park GC, Yi E, Yoon G, Schini-Kerth VB, Oak MH.,The Effect of Quercus salicina Leaf Extracts on Vascular Endothelial Function: Role of Nitric Oxide.,J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2016 Feb;16(2):2069-71.
[7] Michelle López,Bernd Hoppe,History, epidemiology and regional diversities of urolithiasis,Pediatr Nephrol. 2010 Jan; 25(1): 49–59.